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The winchester 223 remington ammo was introduced in 2003 by the Browning Arms Company, Winchester Ammunition, and Winchester Repeating Arms Company. The .223 designation is a reference to the popular .223 Remington. It is currently claimed to be the fastest production .22 caliber round in the world with muzzle velocities as high as 4,600 feet per second (1,402 meters per second), but this is not completely true. The .220 Swift still holds the record as the fastest .22 caliber centerfire cartridge with a published velocity of 4665 fps using a 29 grain projectile and 42 grains of 3031 powder
The .223 Remington is a rifle cartridge, originally developed in 1957 as a commercial hunting bullet for small mid-western varmints; with the first rifle chambered for it coming out in 1963. It has continued to be a popular civilian hunting cartridge.
The development of the cartridge, which eventually became the .223 Remington, was intrinsically linked to the development of a new lightweight combat rifle. The cartridge and rifle were developed by Fairchild Industries, Remington Arms, and several engineers working toward a goal developed by U.S. Continental Army Command (CONARC). Early development work began in 1957. A project to create a small-caliber, high-velocity (SCHV) firearm was created. Eugene Stoner of ArmaLite was invited to scale down the AR-10 (7.62×51mm NATO) design. Winchester was also invited to participate. The parameters requested by CONARC were:
- .22 caliber
- Bullet exceeding supersonic speed at 500 yards 
- Rifle weight 6 lbs
- Magazine capacity of 20 rounds
- Select fire for both semiautomatic and fully automatic use
- Penetration of US steel helmet one side, at 500 yards
- Penetration of .135″ steel plate at 500 yards
- Accuracy and ballistics equal to M2 ball ammunition (.30-06 M1 Garand)
Springfield Armory‘s Earle Harvey lengthened the .222 Remington cartridge case to meet the requirements. It was then known as the .224 Springfield. Concurrently with the SCHV project, Springfield armory was developing a 7.62 mm rifle. Harvey was ordered to cease all work on the SCHV to avoid any competition of resources.
Eugene Stoner of ArmaLite (a division of Fairchild Industries) had been advised to produce a scaled-down version of the 7.62×51mm NATO AR-10 design. In May 1957, Stoner gave a live-fire demonstration of the prototype of the ArmaLite AR-15 for General Wyman. As a result, CONARC ordered rifles to test. Stoner and Sierra Bullet’s Frank Snow began work on the .222 Remington cartridge. Using a ballistic calculator, they determined that a 55-grain bullet would have to be fired at 3,300 ft/s to achieve the 500-yard performance necessary.
Robert Hutton (technical editor of Guns and Ammo magazine) started the development of a powder load to reach the 3,300 ft/s goal. He used DuPont IMR4198, IMR3031, and an Olin powder to work up loads. Testing was done with a Remington 722 rifle with a 22″ Apex barrel. During a public demonstration, the round successfully penetrated the US steel helmet as required, but testing showed chamber pressures to be excessively high.
Stoner contacted both Winchester and Remington about increasing the case capacity. Remington created a larger cartridge called the .222 Special. This cartridge is loaded with DuPont IMR4475 powder.
During parallel testing of the T44E4 (future M14) and the ArmaLite AR-15 in 1958, the T44E4 experienced 16 failures per 1,000 rounds fired compared to 6.1 for the ArmaLite AR-15. Because of several different .222 caliber cartridges that were being developed for the SCHV project, the .222 Special was renamed .223 Remington. In May 1959, a report was produced stating that five- to seven-man squads armed with ArmaLite AR-15 rifles have a higher hit probability than 11-man squads armed with the M-14 rifle. At an Independence Day picnic, Air Force General Curtis Le May tested the ArmaLite AR-15 and was very impressed with it. He ordered a number of them to replace M2 carbines that were in use by the Air Force. In November of that year, testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground showed the ArmaLite AR-15 failure rate had declined to 2.5/1,000, resulting in the ArmaLite AR-15 being approved for trials.
In 1961, a marksmanship testing compared the AR-15 and M-14; 43 % of ArmaLite AR-15 shooters achieved Expert, while only 22 % of M-14 rifle shooters did. Le May ordered 80,000 rifles. In July 1962, operational testing ended with a recommendation for adoption of the ArmaLite AR-15 rifle chambered in .223 Remington. In September 1963, the .223 Remington cartridge was officially accepted and named “Cartridge, 5.56 mm ball, M193”. The following year, the ArmaLite AR-15 was adopted by the United States Army as the M16 rifle and it would later become the standard U.S. military rifle. The specification included a Remington-designed bullet and the use of IMR4475 powder, which resulted in a muzzle velocity of 3,250 ft/s and a chamber pressure of 52,000 psi.
In the spring of 1962, Remington submitted the specifications of the .223 Remington to the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers’ Institute (SAAMI). In December 1963, Remington introduced its first rifle chambered for .223 Remington a Model 760 rifle.
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